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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 13-19

Human immune deficiency virus conundrum: An everlasting challenge!

Department of Ophthalmology, SP Medical College, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Shaheen Farooq
Department of Ophthalmology SP Medical College Bikaner, Rajasthan-334001
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ojo.ojo_125_21

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BACKGROUND: Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) causes a wide spectrum of diseases worldwide and has the capability to affect every organ system in the body. Ocular manifestations have been reported in up to 70% of individuals infected with HIV and the ocular manifestations reflect systemic disease and maybe the first sign of disseminated infection. PURPOSE: To study the pattern of ocular manifestations related to HIV in seropositive patients with the objective of identifying its spectrum in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era and to emphasize on the role of ophthalmologists in fighting the battle against HIV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was undertaken on 300 HIV positive patients. Data were collected, tabulated and analyzed using MSTAT software. Chi-square test was applied and P < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Ocular lesions were observed in 50.33% of patients. Conjunctival microvasculopathy being the most common finding seen in 27 (9%) patients, followed by retinal microvasculopathy and trichomegaly in 20 (6.66%) patients each. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus and cytomegalovirus retinitis were observed in four (1.33%) and three (1%) patients respectively. In the study 78.33% patients were on ART. CONCLUSION: HAART has reduced serious ocular opportunistic infections and ocular malignancies, but HAART mediated visually disabling immune recovery uveitis has emerged as a clinical challenge for ophthalmologists. Improved communication between the two broad specialties of HIV medicine and ophthalmology will definitely go a long way in the battle against this dreadful disease.

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