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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 15  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 159-162

Ocular findings in children with acute leukemia at a tertiary care center in South America

1 Department of Ophthalmology, SAMIC Pediatric Hospital “Prof. Dr. JP Garrahan”, Buenos Aires, Argentina
2 Department of Ocular Oncolology, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Hospital Zambrano-Hellion, Monterrey, México

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Franco Benvenuto
Pediatric Hospital Dr. Prof. JP Garrahan, Pichinchan 1850, ZIP 1245, Buenos Aires
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ojo.ojo_347_20

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PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate ophthalmological findings in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in a Latin American population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective study. The observational analysis was conducted in AML and ALL patients seen as a routine examination at the department of ophthalmology of tertiary care center in Argentina between March 1, 2017, and February 28, 2018. RESULTS: Overall, 137 patients with acute leukemia were included. The mean age was 7.9 ± 5.2 years (0–18), and 55% were male (n = 75) and 45% female (n = 45). At least one-fifth (n = 31) of the patients presented some type of ocular manifestation (23%). The most frequently observed manifestation was retinal hemorrhages (n = 14), followed by papilledema (n = 9) and ocular surface involvement (n = 5). The eye involvement was more frequently identified in the AML group (24%), compared to the ALL group (22%), especially papilledema with central nervous system compromise ALL (5%) and AML (11%), P < 0.01. The presence of hemorrhages was similar in both groups. In patients with retinal hemorrhage (n = 14), the mean hematological findings were hemoglobin 7.4 ± 0.4 g/dL (6.5–8.0), erythrocytes 2.5M ± 0.3/mm3 (confidence interval [CI], 2.0–3.1), and platelets 76,000 ± 32,000/mm3 (CI, 8000–384,000). Patients without retinal findings (n = 123), the mean hematological findings were hemoglobin 9.1 ± 0.6 g/dL (8.0–10.2), erythrocytes 3.2M ± 0.6/mm3 (CI, 2.5–3.5), and platelets 92,000 ± 44,000/mm3 (CI, 42.000–390.000). Multivariable analysis found that hemoglobin levels were the most reliable predictive factor for retinal findings. It was observed that the risk diminishes in patients with levels higher than 8.5 g/dL, and that it increased in patients with levels ranging between 6.5 and 7.5 g/dL at least twice (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that ocular involvement occurs in a high percentage of patients with leukemia with a clear clinical, humoral, and sometimes prognostic correlation, suggesting routine ophthalmologic evaluation in these patients.

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